Newsy Obok slidera Opatrunki Rodzaje ran

Jakie rodzaje opatrunków są dostępne na rynku i w jaki sposób dobrać opatrunek do rany?

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Na rynku dostępnych jest wiele opatrunków specjalistycznych dostosowanych do różnych rodzajów ran. Wiele z nich wzbogaconych jest o zaawansowane technologie, które wspierają proces gojenia. Dobór opatrunku do rany zależy m.in. od stanu rany, ilości wysięku i obecności zakażenia.

Dostępne na rynku materiały opatrunkowe mogą mieć jednocześnie kilka właściwości, np. nawilżające, antybakteryjne czy chłonące wysięk. Oprócz wskazań producenta danego opatrunku, warto ocenić ranę, by dostosować do niej odpowiednią technologię.

Jakie rodzaje opatrunków są dostępne na rynku?

  • Opatrunek absorpcyjny/ chłonny – chłonny opatrunek przeznaczony na rany z wysiękiem. Dostępne na rynku opatrunki posiadają różne stopnie chłonności zależnie od ilości wysięku w ranie. Opatrunek pochłania wysięk, dzięki czemu zapewnia optymalnie wilgotne środowisko gojenia się rany. Nowoczesne opatrunki posiadają kilka warstw, pochłaniają wilgoć z rany i zamykają ją w swojej strukturze. Dzięki temu warstwa przylegająca do rany oraz warstwa zewnętrzna pozostają suche.
  • Opatrunek alginianowyna rany przewlekłe, trudno gojące się, z obfitym wysiękiem, krwawiące. Opatrunek wykonany jest z włókien alginianu wapnia. W momencie zetknięcia się z wydzieliną opatrunek zmienia się w wilgotny żel, by stworzyć odpowiednie środowisko gojenia. Opatrunki te pochłaniają wysięk razem z drobnoustrojami.
  • Opatrunek chłodzący/hydrożelowy – hydroaktywny opatrunek na oparzenia i rany przewlekłe wymagające nawilżenia. Opatrunek działa chłodząco i nawilżająco, a jednocześnie zmniejsza dolegliwości bólowe czy uczucie pieczenia. Opatrunek zawiera wodę, która stopniowo uwalniana jest do rany.
  • Opatrunek hydrowłóknisty – na rany z dużym wysiękiem, np. odleżyny, rany z przetokami, zakażone, w zespole stopy cukrzycowej. Opatrunki silnie wchłaniają płyny i posiadają miękką i luźną strukturę, dzięki czemu dopasowują się różnych rodzajów ran. Można je wykorzystać do ran powierzchownych, a także do wypełniania ran głębokich.

  • Opatrunek foliowy/poliuretanowy – m.in. na lekko sączące się rany pooperacyjne. Przezroczysty opatrunek wykonany z folii poliuretanowej umożliwia obserwowanie procesu gojenia się rany bez konieczności zdejmowania opatrunku, a jednocześnie chroni ranę przed urazem mechanicznym, zabrudzeniem, podrażnieniem, zamoczeniem. Folia przepuszcza powietrze do rany. Tego rodzaju opatrunków nie należy jednak stosować na rany zakażone.
  • Opatrunek hydrokoloidowy – m.in. na pęcherze, otarcia, opryszczki. Opatrunek nie naciska na ranę, a jednocześnie chroni ją przed urazem i zabezpiecza przed zanieczyszczeniami z zewnątrz. Ponadto wchłania wysięk, zmniejsza ból i przyspiesza gojenie. Opatrunku hydrokoloidowego nie można stosować na rany zakażone i suche.
  • Opatrunek jałowy/sterylny – na rany pooperacyjne, głębokie, rozległe, krwawiące, z wysiękiem, oparzenia drugiego i wyższego stopnia. Opatrunek jest wolny od wszelkich drobnoustrojów, dlatego zalecany jest na rany, w przypadku których istnieje wysokie ryzyko zakażenia.
  • Opatrunek pooperacyjny – na rany operacyjne. Opatrunek sterylny o właściwościach pochłaniających wysięk, „oddychający”. Utrzymuje ranę w czystości i suchości.
  • Opatrunek silikonowy – wykonany z silikonu – higienicznego i przyjaznego dla skóry materiału. Opatrunek dokładnie przylega do rany, a jego elastyczność pozwala na bezbolesne usunięcie.
  • Opatrunek ze srebrem – na rany z obecnością martwicy, zainfekowane, np. głębokie odleżyny, rozległe owrzodzenia. W strukturze materiału opatrunkowego zawarte jest srebro, które działa przeciwbakteryjnie.
  • Opatrunek żelowy – żel nakładany na rany, odleżyny, owrzodzenia. Do tego rodzaju opatrunku wymagany jest dodatkowy opatrunek wierzchni.
  • Opatrunek piankowy (poliuretanowy) – na rany ze średnim i dużym wysiękiem, powstałe w anatomicznie trudnych miejscach. Zewnętrzną warstwę opatrunku tworzy pianka, która chroni ranę przed działaniem zewnętrznym. Mogą służyć do wypełniania ubytku.

Jak dobrać opatrunek do rany?

Oprócz wskazań producenta danego opatrunku, materiał należy dobrać do stanu rany i tkanki. Pod uwagę należy przede wszystkim wziąć ilość wysięku oraz to, czy rana jest zakażona. Rodzaj opatrunku uzależniony jest również od ubytku tkanek, głębokości rany, występowania martwicy (suchej lub rozpływnej) oraz biofilmu.

Opatrunek na ranę trudno gojącą się powinien wypełniać łożysko rany i być nieprzepuszczalny dla bakterii. Istotne jest również, by opatrunek pozwalał na dostęp powietrza do rany, utrzymywał stałą temperaturę tkanek zbliżoną do temperatury ciała. Rany suche zawsze wymagają zastosowania opatrunków nawilżających, np. w postaci żelu, a rany z wysiękiem – opatrunku chłonnego, antybakteryjnego. Rany z ubytkiem powinny zostać wypełnione opatrunkami chłonącymi wysięk, które jednocześnie umożliwiają utrzymanie żelu w dnie rany. Rany bez ubytku, płaskie, powinny być zaopatrywane opatrunkiem siatkowym. Rany, którym towarzyszy nieprzyjemny zapach, mogą być opatrywane opatrunkami zawierającymi węgiel aktywny.

Opatrunek nigdy nie powinien sprawiać pacjentowi bólu, powodować świądu czy pieczenia. W przypadku zaobserwowania tych objawów opatrunek należy zmienić na inny. 

Źródło: materiały przygotowane przez mgr Elżbietę Szkiler, zagojeni.pl

 

Przeczytaj także: Jakimi zasadami powinniśmy kierować się w doborze opatrunku do rany? [WYWIAD z Anną Mirosz]

Sprawdź dostępne na rynku opatrunki specjalistyczne!

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