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Zespół naukowców z Politechniki Warszawskiej opracowuje innowacyjne produkty do regeneracji kości

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Kierowany przez dr hab. inż. Agnieszkę Gadomską-Gajadhur zespół ekspertów z Wydziału Chemicznego Politechniki Warszawskiej realizuje projekt BoneReg, czyli opracowanie dwóch implantów kości gąbczastej, które przyspieszają regenerację kości m.in. u chorych na osteoporozę.

– Każdy ortopeda, który zakłada implant, myśli o tym, by zabieg był możliwie najkrótszy, najmniej inwazyjny i dodatkowo chciałby korzystać z narzędzi i procedur, które już doskonale zna. Takie założenia przyświecały również nam – wyjaśnia dr hab. inż. Gadomska-Gajadhur.

Implant do rekonstrukcji więzadła krzyżowego w kolanie

Obecnie ubytki kości gąbczastej leczone są za pomocą dwóch metod. Zdaniem ekspertów PW nie zawsze przynoszą one dobre rezultaty i doprowadzają do regeneracji tkanki. Pierwsza z nich to przeszczep tzw. „mozaiki” tkankowej pobieranej od osób zmarłych. Metoda ta obarczona jest ryzykiem przeniesienia choroby od dawcy. Ponadto materiał nie zawsze jest dobrej jakości. Druga metoda polega na podaniu preparatu złożonego głównie z hydroksyapatytu, który jest nieorganicznym składnikiem zębów i kości. Zdaniem specjalistów to rozwiązanie również nie zawsze się sprawdza.

Eksperci postanowili opracować alternatywę dla tych zabiegów. W wyniku ich prac powstały dwa implanty. Pierwszy z nich ma posłużyć rekonstrukcji więzadła krzyżowego w kolanie. W trakcie zabiegu nawierca się kanały kostne, czyli uszkadza kość, by mieć możliwość zaczepienia nowego więzadła wprowadzonego do organizmu. Kanały kostne wypełniłby implant stworzony przez warszawskich naukowców.  Wynalazek przypomina gąbkę i jest bardzo lekki. W materiale znajduje się wiele pustych, połączonych ze sobą kanalików, które służyć mają jako „rusztowanie” dla komórek odbudowującej się kości. Materiał jest bardzo elastyczny, zatem można w nim osadzić czynniki wzrostu (np. osocze bogatopłytkowe), które wesprą naturalną odbudowę kości. Dr Gadomska-Gajadhur zaznacza, że implant jest zbudowany na bazie polimeru biodegradowalnego, który stopniowo zanikałby w organizmie. Na sali operacyjnej chirurg może dowolnie przyciąć implant.

 Dr hab. inż. Agnieszka Gadomska-Gajadhur z implantami kości gąbczastej. Źródło: biuletyn.pw.edu.pl

Wynalazek dla pacjentów z ubytkami kości wywołanymi osteoporozą

Eksperci z PW postanowili opracować jeszcze jeden implant, który odpowiadałby na potrzeby pacjentów z osteoporozą i służyłby regeneracji ubytków kostnych.

– Wpadliśmy na pomysł drugiego implantu, troszeczkę podobnego do stosowanego komercyjnie wypełnienia z  hydroksyapatytu. Wypełnia się nim miejsca, w których kość jest o obniżonej gęstości. Natomiast nasz implant będzie dwuskładnikowy, a mieszanie będzie zachodziło we wnętrzu kości. To jest innowacyjne rozwiązanie – wskazuje kierowniczka projektu.

Zabieg wszczepienia implantu będzie niezinwazyjny, ponieważ nie ma konieczności otwierania kości. Pobrane od pacjenta składniki zawierające komórki macierzyste będą podawane za pomocą cienkiej igły, głównie przez powierzchnię stawową. Gdy komórki trafią do wnętrza kości, w miejscu gdzie pojawia się przestrzeń o małej gęstości lub w ogóle nie ma komórek, nastąpi wymieszanie i stworzy się wypełnienie. Dzięki takiemu wzmocnieniu kość nie powinna się złamać. Komórki macierzyste, które trafią do kości spowodują bardzo szybką jej odbudowę, a po kilkunastu miesiącach wypełnienie ulegnie rozkładowi i usunie się z organizmu.

Tańsza alternatywa dla obecnych metod regeneracji kości

Dr Gadomska-Gajadhur zaznacza, że obecnie oba implanty są jeszcze dopracowywane, by były nietoksyczne dla komórek i jak najlepiej pełniły swoje funkcje po wszczepieniu. W lipcu 2022 r. eksperci planują rozpoczęcie badań na zwierzętach. Eksperci wskazują, że gdy ich wynalazki pojawią się już na rynku, będą miały konkurencyjną cenę. „Mozaika” tkankowa to obecnie koszt około 600-800 zł, natomiast naukowcy szczują, że ich substytut kości gąbczastej powinien wynieść około 200 zł. Dwuskładnikowe rozwiązanie m.in. dla pacjentów z osteoporozą również ma być tańsze niż obecna dziś w medycynie alternatywa.

Opracowane przez warszawskich naukowców wynalazki zostały już docenione podczas Międzynarodowej Warszawskiej Wystawy Wynalazków IWIS 2021. Bioaktywny substytut kości gąbczastej do regeneracji więzadła krzyżowego otrzymał srebrny medal, a dwuskładnikowy implant kostny do leczenia osteoporozy – złoty. Zespół ekspertów otrzymał również nagrodę „Symbol Synergii Nauki i Biznesu 2021”.

Źródło: Politechnika Warszawska

 

 

Przeczytaj także: Urządzenie monitoruje proces gojenia złamań kości

 

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