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Hemostatyczny klej na bazie jadu węża powstrzymuje krwawienie w niecałą minutę

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Naukowcy z uniwersytetów Western Ontario, Manitoba i Shantou opracowali chirurgiczny „superklej” na bazie jadu węża, który może powstrzymać zagrażające życiu krwawienie powstałe podczas operacji lub w wyniku poważnych urazów. Hemostatyczna substancja skraca czas krzepnięcia krwi do 45 sekund.

HAD to nazwa nowego kleju chirurgicznego na bazie jadu węża, który wpływa na zmniejszenie utraty krwi i potencjalnie przyczynia się do ratowania życia pacjentów. Naukowcy przewidują, że w przyszłości może służyć żołnierzom na polu bitwy lub w przypadkach poważnych urazów, a także podczas operacji.

HAD ma dużą siłę adhezji i jest odporny na oderwanie

Substancją czynną nowej generacji kleju jest batroksobina, enzym pochodzący z jadu węża lancetowatego, który odpowiada za krzepnięcie krwi. Wykorzystując właściwości krzepnięcia enzymu, naukowcy połączyli go ze zmodyfikowaną żelatyną i opracowali specjalny rodzaj kleju chirurgicznego. Substancja umieszczona została w niewielkiej tubie, która ułatwia aplikację kleju do miejsca krwawienia. Żel należy po aplikacji naświetlić przez kilka sekund, by rozpoczął swoje działanie. Do naświetlenia wystarczy światło widzialne lub latarka zainstalowana w smartfonie.

Badacze podkreślają, że w porównaniu z klejem fibrynowym, który używany jest w chirurgii klinicznej i terenowej do tamowania krwi, HAD ma 10-krotnie większą siłę adhezji, więc odporny jest na oderwanie bądź wypłukanie z powodu obfitego krwawienia. Superklej skraca również czas krzepnięcia krwi o połowę – z 95 sekund w przypadku kleju fibrynowego do 45 sekund w przypadku substancji z jadu węża. W normalnych warunkach, bez jakiejkolwiek interwencji, krew krzepnie w ciągu 5 do 6 minut.

Substancja na bazie jadu węża zmniejsza utratę krwi o 78 proc.

Substancja została przetestowana na modelu szczurzym. Po raz pierwszy użyto jej na amputowanym ogonie gryzonia. Działanie superkleju porównano z innymi dostępnymi w praktyce klinicznej substancjami hemostatycznymi (HC, GelMA, Fibrin Glue) oraz z grupą kontrolną, gdzie nie zastosowano żadnej metody tamowania krwi.

Źródło: advances.sciencemag.org

Następnie naukowcy przetestowali HAD na urazach, które skutkują krwawieniem zagrażającym życiu, takich jak głębokie nacięcia skóry, pęknięte aorty brzuszne i urazy wątroby u szczurów. Badacze wykazali, że superklej pozwolił zabliźnić rany w ciągu 45 sekund, zmniejszając utratę krwi o 78 proc. Substancja stworzyła w krwawiącej tkance fizyczną barierę, a także przyspieszyła tworzenie się fibryny, co w konsekwencji zatrzymało krwawienie.

Badacze wskazują, że nowej generacji klej chirurgiczny może być umieszczany w apteczkach pierwszej pomocy używanych przez ratowników i żołnierzy. W przyszłości substancja może być również skuteczna w bezszwowym, chirurgicznym zamykaniu ran. Naukowcy planują obecnie rozpoczęcie badań klinicznych nad nową substancją.

Źródło: news.westernu.ca, advances.sciencemag.org

Przeczytaj także: „EB to przede wszystkim ból. Nie ma nawet sekundy, kiedy da się o nim zapomnieć” – historia pacjenta z dystroficzną postacią Epidermolysis bullosa

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