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W Australii opracowano nową metodę walki z opornymi bakteriami

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Naukowcy z University of Melbourne wykazali, w jaki sposób pneumokoki pozyskują z ludzkiego organizmu składniki odżywcze. Odkrycie to może pomóc w opracowaniu efektywnych terapii przeciwko opornym na antybiotyki patogenom.

Zakończył się trwający przez 20 lat program badawczy prowadzony przez naukowców z australijskich ośrodków Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity oraz Bio21 Molecular Science & Biotechnology Institute we współpracy z badaczami z Australian National University oraz Kyoto University w Japonii. Wyniki badań wykazały, w jaki sposób bakterie z rodzaju S. pneumoniae pozyskują z ludzkiego organizmu kluczowy składnik odżywczy – mangan. Odkrycie to pozwoli opracować nowe terapie przeciwko bakterii.

Furtka” w membranie bakterii

Naukowcy australijscy odkryli, że w błonie komórkowej pneumokoków znajduje się unikalna „furtka”, która otwiera się i zamyka, by absorbować wyłącznie cząsteczki manganu. Jak podkreślają autorzy badań, do tej pory nie zaobserwowano u drobnoustrojów podobnej struktury.

Prof. Christopher McDevitt, kierownik laboratorium w Doherty Institute i jeden z autorów projektu, wyjaśnia, że odkrycie to całkowicie zrewolucjonizowało wiedzę na temat tego, w jaki sposób bakterie mogą przetrwać w ludzkim organizmie. Jak tłumaczy ekspert:

– Do tej pory sądzono, że ta specyficzna „furtka” przepuszcza wszystkie cząsteczki do wnętrza komórki bakterii. Dzięki badaniom zrozumieliśmy, że służy ona wyłącznie do pobierania manganu. Jeżeli działanie tej „furtki” zostanie w jakikolwiek sposób zaburzone, bakteria będzie pozbawiona składników odżywczych, a w konsekwencji niezdolna do wywołania zakażenia.

Nowe terapie przeciwko pneumokokom

Dzięki zbadaniu mechanizmu odżywiania pneumokoków możliwe będzie opracowanie alternatywnych i potencjalnie bardziej efektywnych metod ich zwalczania. Jak wyjaśnia prof. Christopher McDevitt:

– Odkryta przez nas „brama” w membranie to naprawdę atrakcyjny cel terapeutyczny, ponieważ znajduje się ona na powierzchni komórki. Organizm człowieka nie posiada podobnych struktur.

Walka z rosnącym problemem odporności

Pneumokoki stanowią czynnik etiologiczny różnorodnych zakażeń, a także bakteriemii i sepsy. S. pneumoniae znajduje się na stworzonej przez Światową Organizację Zdrowia liście drobnoustrojów lekoopornych, które wymagają pilnych działań w obszarze badań i opracowania nowych antybiotyków. W chwili obecnej obserwuje się oporność pneumokoków m.in. na antybiotyki beta-laktamowe, tetracykliny, sulfonamidy, fluorochinolony, linkozamidy, makrolidy.

Jak podkreślają australijscy naukowcy, ich odkrycia mogą mieć duże znaczenie w kontekście walki z rosnącym problemem oporności patogenów na antybiotyki.

Źródło:

sciencedaily.com

K. Pawlik, „Lekooporność S. pneumoniae: częstość występowania, mechanizmy, znaczenie kliniczne”, Aktualności Narodowego Programu Ochrony Antybiotyków, 2/2019

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