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Naukowcy opracowali algorytm przepisywania leków przeciwdrobnoustrojowych

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Techniki sekwencjonowania genomowego oraz analiza danych pacjentów, z pomocą uczenia maszynowego, posłużyły izraelskim naukowcom, by opracować innowacyjny algorytm wspierający przepisywanie antybiotyków. W swoich badaniach eksperci skupili się na infekcjach bakteryjnych ran.

Rozwiązanie zostało opracowane przez zespół kierowany przez prof. Roya Kishonego z Technion-Israel Institute of Technology w Hajfie we współpracy z Maccabi KSM Research and Innovation Center, którym kieruje dr Tal Patalon. Naukowcy twierdzą, że zaprojektowany przez nich algorytm może nawet o połowę zmniejszyć ryzyko pojawienia się antybiotykooporności.

Dopasowanie leczenia antybiotykami dla każdego pacjenta

Naukowcy wyjaśniają, że leczenie infekcji bakteryjnych skupia się na wyborze antybiotyku, który odpowiada wrażliwości patogenu. Tymczasem nawet dopasowane leczenie może zakończyć się niepowodzeniem w wyniku pojawiającej się oporności drobnoustrojów.

– Chcieliśmy zrozumieć, w jaki sposób pojawia się oporność na antybiotyki podczas leczenia i znaleźć sposoby na lepsze dostosowanie leczenia antybiotykami dla każdego pacjenta, aby nie tylko prawidłowo dopasować obecną podatność pacjenta na infekcje, ale także zminimalizować ryzyko nawrotu infekcji i uzyskać oporność na leczenie – podkreślił prof. Kishon.

W przeprowadzonych badaniach naukowcy skupili się na dwóch typach infekcji bakteryjnych. Z pomocą sekwencjonowania całego genomu i analizy uczenia maszynowego przeanalizowano 1113 izolatów bakteryjnych przed i po leczeniu, 140 349 historii pacjentów z infekcją dróg moczowych oraz 7 365 zakażeń ran. Eksperci odkryli, że pojawienie się oporności można przewidzieć, a także zminimalizować je na poziomie indywidualnego pacjenta.

Szansa na poprawę skuteczności leczenia infekcji

Jak wyjaśniają badacze, bakterie mogą ewoluować przez losowe nabywanie mutacji, co czyni je opornymi na antybiotyki. Losowość tego procesu utrudnia przewidywanie i uniknięcie rozwoju oporności. Eksperci z Izraela odkryli jednak, że w przypadku większości infekcji, u przeważającej części pacjentów, oporność nie została nabyta przez przypadkowe mutacje. Zakażenia powodują głównie własne bakterie jelitowe pacjenta (mikrobiom). Dlatego zaproponowano dopasowanie antybiotyku nie tylko do podatności bakterii wywołujących obecną infekcję, ale także do bakterii w ich mikrobiomie, które mogłyby je zastąpić.

– Odkryliśmy, że podatność na antybiotyki wcześniejszych infekcji pacjenta może być wykorzystana do przewidywania ryzyka nawrotu opornej infekcji po leczeniu antybiotykami. Wykorzystanie tych danych wraz z danymi demograficznymi pacjenta, takimi jak wiek i płeć, pozwoliło nam opracować algorytm – podkreślił dr Mathew Stracy, pierwszy autor artykułu, biochemik z Technion, który pracuje również na Oxford University w Wielkiej Brytanii.

Naukowcy mają nadzieję, że opracowane przez nich rozwiązanie znajdzie szerokie zastosowanie w leczeniu infekcji bakteryjnych, co z kolei wpłynie na poprawę skuteczności i zminimalizowanie rozprzestrzeniania się oporności drobnoustrojów.

Źródło: PAP


Przeczytaj także: Czujnik w nieinwazyjny sposób wykrywa wczesne oznaki infekcji rany

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