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Powstała elektroniczna skóra, która wyczuwa nacisk i zmiany temperatury

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Zespół naukowców ze Stanów Zjednoczonych i Korei Południowej opracował prototyp elektronicznej skóry, która równocześnie może odbierać bodźce mechaniczne i zmiany temperatury. Wyniki badań zostały opublikowane 20 listopada w czasopiśmie naukowym „Science”.

Zespół naukowców, którym kierowali prof. Unyong Jeong i dr Insang You z Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) w Korei Południowej oraz prof. Zhenan Bao ze Stanford University, stworzył jonowo-elektronową sztuczną skórę, która jest zdolna do odbierania różnego rodzaju bodźców. Wynalazek koreańsko-amerykańskiego zespołu badawczego to pierwsza tego rodzaju struktura, która może odbierać ruch i temperaturę jednocześnie.

Wielofunkcyjny receptor

Zespół naukowców wykorzystał do stworzenia sztucznej skóry specjalne właściwości przewodników jonowych. Materiał, z którego stworzono elektroniczną tkankę, został wzbogacony elektrolitami, które są obecne również w prawdziwej ludzkiej skórze. W ten sposób powstał wielofunkcyjny sztuczny receptor oparty na prostej strukturze elektroda-elektrolit-elektroda.

Pomiar różnych bodźców

Naukowcy wykorzystali fakt, że przewodnik jonowy w zależności od częstotliwości pomiaru może mieć różne mierzalne właściwości. Zespół wprowadził dwie zmienne do pomiaru – czas relaksacji ładunku oraz znormalizowaną pojemność. Dzięki wykorzystaniu dwóch częstotliwości pomiaru możliwe stało się uzyskanie danych dla obu zmiennych niezależnie. W efekcie receptor może odbierać dwa rodzaje bodźców.

Elektroniczna skóra odbiera temperaturę przedmiotu, z którym wejdzie w kontakt, poprzez pomiar czasu relaksacji ładunku. Jednocześnie receptory analizują także kierunek i profil mechanicznego nacisku, jakiemu poddawana jest sztuczna skóra (np. ściskanie, szczypanie, skręcanie), poprzez pomiar znormalizowanej pojemności.

Zdolność do odbierania obu rodzajów bodźców to znacząca innowacja. Dotychczas podobne struktury wykazywały poważne błędy w mierzeniu temperatury, jeżeli jednocześnie wywierano nacisk mechaniczny.

Sztuczna skóra odbiera temperaturę i kierunek nacisku. Źródło: POSTECH University

Jak wyjaśnia dr Insang You z ośrodka naukowego POSTECH, jeden z autorów projektu:

– Jeśli przyłożymy do elektronicznej skóry palec wskazujący, receptory odbiorą to jako zmianę temperatury. Jeżeli natomiast tym samym palcem przyciśniemy sztuczną tkankę, ulegnie ona rozciągnięciu, a receptory zarejestrują bodziec ruchowy. Ten mechanizm to jeden ze sposobów, w jakie prawdziwa ludzka skóra odbiera zróżnicowane sygnały.

Szeroki potencjał zastosowania

Prof. Unyong Jeong z ośrodka naukowego POSTECH, współautor wynalazku, zwraca uwagę, że może on w przyszłości znaleźć szerokie zastosowanie w leczeniu pacjentów, u których z powodu urazu lub choroby doszło do zaburzenia odczuwania bodźców przez skórę:

– Ten projekt to pierwszy krok ku badaniom naukowym nad właściwościami skóry z użyciem elektrolitów. Dalekosiężny cel tych badań to stworzenie w pełni funkcjonalnej, sztucznej skóry jonowo-elektronicznej, która będzie symulowała działanie ludzkich receptorów dotykowych i neuroprzekaźników. Pozwoli to przywrócić zmysł dotyku u pacjentów, którzy utracili go z powodu choroby lub wypadku.


Przeczytaj także: Naukowcy opracowali biomateriał, który stymuluje gojenie ran

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