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Powstał plaster pooperacyjny, który uwalnia środki przeciwbólowe bezpośrednio do rany

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Badacze z amerykańskiego ośrodka Duke University stworzyli biokompatybilny plaster, który uwalnia bezpośrednio do łożyska rany nieopioidowe leki przeciwbólowe. Plaster działa również łagodząco na stany zapalne.

Wyniki badań opublikowano w czasopiśmie naukowym „Journal of Controlled Release”. Projekt powstał dzięki pozyskanemu od władz stanu Ohio grantowi na badania nad leczeniem bólu bez stosowania opioidów. Celem projektu była walka z rosnącym problemem nadużywania i uzależnienia od leków opioidowych.

Zespół naukowców z Duke University stworzył plaster, który na przestrzeni kilku dni stopniowo uwalnia do łożyska rany lek blokujący enzym COX-2 (cyklooksygenaza-2). Enzym ten jest odpowiedzialny za dolegliwości bólowe oraz rozwój stanu zapalnego. Po uwolnieniu leku do rany plaster ulega rozpuszczeniu.

Szczególne właściwości polimeru

Jak wyjaśnia prof. Matthew Becker, specjalista w dziedzinie chemii z Duke University i współautor badań:

– Projekt rozpoczął się od opracowywania zróżnicowanych siatek przepuklinowych oraz powłok przeciwbakteryjnych. Doszliśmy do wniosku, że jeżeli powłoki te byłyby wzbogacone lekami przeciwbólowymi, potencjalnie można byłoby wyelimonować konieczność podawania pacjentowi opioidów.

Materiał, z którego stworzono przeciwbólowy plaster, ma szczególne właściwości. To polimer składający się z homopolimerów i kopolimerów poliestrowo-mocznikowych. Jak wyjaśnia prof. Matthew Becker, w przeciwieństwie do większości stosowanych w medycynie polimerów ulega on stopniowej erozji. Dzięki temu można kontrolować dawkę i czas podawania leków przeciwbólowych poprzez zmianę grubości i wielkości powierzchni polimeru na ranie.

Wsparcie w okresie pooperacyjnym

Jak wyjaśnia prof. Matthew Becker, jeden plaster pozwala na skuteczne zarządzanie dolegliwościami bólowymi przez trzy lub cztery dni. Jest to kluczowy okres w opiece pooperacyjnej. Jak wykazały badania na szczurach, uwalniane przez plaster leki pozostają w tkankach w pobliżu łożyska rany i nie przedostają się do krwiobiegu.

– Jeżeli można uzyskać kilka dni skutecznej kontroli bólu bez podawania opioidowych leków przeciwbólowych, pozwala to uniknąć skutków ubocznych stosowania tych leków oraz wyeliminować ryzyko uzależnienia. Ponadto terapia jest skoncentrowana w miejscu wystąpienia problemu – wyjaśnia ekspert.

Szerokie zastosowanie

Opracowany przez amerykańskich naukowców wynalazek może znaleźć zastosowanie w operacjach endoskopowych, a także przy cesarskich cięciach oraz zabiegach pediatrycznych, gdzie szczególnie ważne jest, by unikać ekspozycji na opioidy.

Źródło: sciencedaily.com

Przeczytaj także: Płynny bandaż zmierzy poziom natlenienia tkanek w ranie

Przeczytaj bezpłatnie pokrewny artykuł w czasopiśmie „Pielęgniarstwo w Anestezjologii i Intensywnej Opiece”:

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