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Powłoka z czarnego fosforu do walki z zakażeniami bakteryjnymi i grzybiczymi

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Naukowcy z Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology opracowali ultracienką powłokę z czarnego fosforu, którą można umieścić w opatrunkach oraz w implantach. Materiał ma szerokie spektrum działania przeciwdrobnoustrojowego.

Opracowana przez naukowców z RMIT powłoka to jedna z najcieńszych stworzonych dotychczas materiałów o właściwościach przeciwdrobnoustrojowych. Badania wykazały, że jest ona skuteczna przeciwko lekoopornym bakteriom i grzybom, a jednocześnie nie wykazuje działania cytotoksycznego.

Z elektroniki do medycyny

Czarny fosfor (ang. black phosporus, BP) nie był dotychczas badany na szeroką skalę pod kątem potencjalnego zastosowania klinicznego. Wykorzystywano go przede wszystkim w pracach nad elektroniką nowej generacji.

Badania naukowców z RMIT University dowiodły, że nanopowłoki z czarnego fosforu umieszczone na powierzchniach z tytanu lub bawełny wykazują skuteczność w niszczeniu drobnoustrojów. Dzięki tej właściwości powłoki z tego materiału mogłyby znaleźć zastosowanie w opatrunkach i implantach. Wyniki badań australijskich naukowców opublikowano w czasopiśmie naukowym „ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces”.

Broń w walce z opornością bakteryjną

Dr Aaron Elbourne, jeden z autorów projektu, zwraca uwagę, że ważną cechą nowego materiału jest to, że patogenom trudno będzie wykształcić mechanizmy obronne przeciwko niemu. Jak mówi ekspert:

– Wraz ze wzrostem oporności bakteryjnej coraz trudniej jest leczyć zakażenia tymi patogenami. Potrzebujemy w walce z superbakteriami nowych broni. Takich, które nie będą się przyczyniały do dalszego pogłębiania problemu antybiotykooporności – tłumaczy dr Elbourne. – Nasza nanopowłoka rozrywa komórki bakterii i grzybów. To mechanizm działania, do którego mikroorganizmom będzie bardzo trudno się zaadaptować.

Niszczenie bakterii w dwie godziny

Działanie czarnego fosforu polega na tym, że ulegające rozpadowi cząsteczki utleniają powierzchnię komórek bakterii i grzybów. Proces ten, określany jako utlenianie komórkowe, prowadzi do ich rozerwania.

Naukowcy z RMIT University przetestowali działanie przeciwdrobnoustrojowe powłoki na pięciu powszechnych szczepach bakterii (w tym E. coli oraz MRSA) i pięciu rodzajach grzybów (m.in. Candida auris). Wyniki badań wykazały, że 99% cząsteczek bakterii i grzybów zostało zniszczonych w ciągu dwóch godzin od aplikacji powłoki.

Badania wykazały również, że czarny fosfor uległ pełnej samodegradacji w ciągu 24 godzin. To istotna informacja, ponieważ wskazuje ona, że materiał nie będzie ulegał akumulacji w organizmie.

Czarny fosfor w stężeniu koniecznym do zachowania właściwości bójczych nie wykazuje efektu cytotoksycznego.

Badania nad zastosowaniem klinicznym

Zespół z RMIT University prowadzi obecnie dalsze badania nad możliwością wprowadzenia nanopowłok fosforowych do praktyki klinicznej. Trwają eksperymenty nad wykorzystaniem powłoki na różnego rodzaju powierzchniach medycznych.

Autorzy projektu są przekonani, że ich wynalazek może stanowić istotny krok naprzód w pracach nad efektywniejszym leczeniem opornych zakażeń bakteryjnych i grzybiczych.

Źródło: eurekalert.org

Przeczytaj także: Badanie: immunoterapia w onkologii a zmiany skórne

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