Opryszczkowe zapalenie jamy ustnej. Jak objawia się u dzieci?
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Opryszczkowe zapalenie jamy ustnej. Jak objawia się u dzieci?

Ten tekst przeczytasz w 2 min.

Z najczęstszych symptomów wskazujących na opryszczkowe zapalenie jamy ustnej u dzieci wyróżnia się ból gardła, gorączkę, osłabienie czy nieprzyjemny zapach z ust. Choroba ta jest niebezpieczna dla zdrowia dzieci, dlatego powinna zostać skonsultowana z lekarzem. Niekiedy w najcięższych przypadkach zachodzi konieczność leczenia szpitalnego.

Tworzące się w jamie ustnej owrzodzenia to postać opryszczki wargowej, które mają jednak inny przebieg niż tzw. zimno na wardze. Wywołane wirusem HSV-1 zmiany są niezwykle bolesne, przez co dzieci odmawiają nie tylko leków, ale nawet picia. To natomiast może prowadzić nawet do odwodnienia.

Pierwotne zakażenie wirusem opryszczki następuje najczęściej między 6. mies. a 5. r. ż.

Podczas pierwszego zakażenia wirus HSV-1 przedostając się do organizmu wnika w końcówki nerwów, szczególnie w zwoje czuciowe. W tym miejscu pozostaje już do końca życia, natomiast uaktywnia się w momentach wyczerpania fizycznego, psychicznego, jak również osłabienia systemu odpornościowego.

Czas inkubacji opryszczkowego zapalenia jamy ustnej wynosi kilka dni

Pierwotne zakażenie wirusem, objawiające się opryszczkowym zapaleniem jamy ustnej może charakteryzować się ostrym przebiegiem. U dziecka występuje wówczas wysoka gorączka, powiększenie węzłów chłonnych szyjnych oraz ogólne osłabienie. Ponadto można zauważyć u dziecka rozdrażnienie, a także ślinotok.

Następnie, po 2-3 dniach pojawiają się zazwyczaj pęcherzyki, w których znajduje się płyn surowiczy. Kolejnym krokiem tej choroby jest tworzenie się nadżerek, które charakteryzują się trudnością w gojeniu.

Opryszczkowe zapalenie jamy ustnej. Jak objawia się u dzieci?

Opryszczkowe zapalenie jamy ustnej leczy się u dzieci nawet do 14 dni

Owrzodzenia umiejscawiają się zazwyczaj na tylnej ścianie gardła oraz łukach podniebiennych. Ponadto występują również na języczku, migdałkach i podniebieniu miękkim.

Dodatkowym zagrożeniem szczególnie dla dzieci jest przeniesienie wirusa wraz ze śliną w okolice oka. Może to doprowadzić do uszkodzenia rogówki, a nawet utraty wzroku.

Leki przeciwwirusowe w leczeniu opryszczkowego zapalenia jamy ustnej u dzieci

W przypadku wystąpienia pęcherzyków bądź owrzodzeń w jamie ustnej dziecka niezwykle ważna jest szybka reakcja i konsultacja z lekarzem, który zaleci leki przeciwwirusowe. Powinny one zostać podane w pierwszej fazie choroby, zanim pojawią się pęcherzyki. Zastosowanie ich pozwoli na zahamowanie namnażania się wirusa i skrócenie czasu choroby.

Ponadto aby złagodzić objawy choroby można zastosować również leki przeciwgorączkowe i przeciwbólowe. Nie należy wówczas podawać dziecku zbyt gorących i zbyt twardych pokarmów, ponieważ mogą jeszcze bardziej podrażnić zmienioną chorobowo błonę śluzową.

Źródło: medme.pl

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