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Nowa metoda amputacji zmniejsza ból i daje lepszą kontrolę nad kończyną

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Badacze z Massachusetts University of Technology opracowali nową metodę amputacji, która zapewnia pacjentom lepsze wrażenia sensoryczne, a dzięki temu umożliwia lepszą kontrolę nad kończyną. Wyniki badań naukowców z MIT ukazały się w czasopiśmie „Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences”.

Nowa metoda amputacji określana jest nazwą AMI (ang. agonist-antagonist myoneural interface, mięśniowo-nerwowe złącze agonistyczno-antagonistyczne).

W projekcie badawczym przeprowadzonym przez naukowców z MIT zabiegowi poddano 15 pacjentów. Wyniki badań wykazały, że osoby poddane AMI w obrębie kończyny dolnej poniżej kolana mogły kontrolować pozostałe po amputacji mięśnie bardziej precyzyjnie niż pacjenci po tradycyjnej amputacji. Przekłada się to również na lepszą kontrolę nad protezą kończyny. U pacjentów po AMI stwierdzono również większą swobodę ruchów i mniejsze dolegliwości bólowe.

Innowacyjna metoda łączenia mięśni

Mięśnie odpowiadające za ruchy kończyn działają na zasadzie zależności agonista-antagonista. W praktyce oznacza to, że kiedy jeden mięsień ulega rozciąganiu, drugi się kurczy. Przykładem takiej pary mięśni są biceps i triceps. W przypadku tradycyjnej amputacji wspólne ruchy mięśni zostają ograniczone, co powoduje zmniejszenie odczuwanych w kończynie wrażeń sensorycznych.

Nowa metoda amputacji ma zachować współdziałanie pomiędzy parami mięśni. Mięśnie w kikucie pozostałym po amputacji są łączone w taki sposób, by zachować dynamiczną komunikację pomiędzy nimi, a w konsekwencji zapewnić lepszy przepływ sygnałów sensorycznych do mózgu.

Jak mówi dr Shriya Srinivasan, główna autorka projektu i ekspertka w dziedzinie biomechatroniki, nowa metoda amputacji przełożyła się bezpośrednio na poprawę ogólnego komfortu pacjentów:

– Nasi pacjenci zgłaszali, że dobrze odczuwają, gdzie „znajduje się” w danym momencie fantomowa kończyna i w jaki sposób się porusza. Okazało się, że przywrócenie naturalnej fizjologii mięśni nie tylko poprawia kontrolę nad kończyną i protezą, ale również zwiększa komfort psychiczny pacjenta i ułatwia mu funkcjonowanie.

Dalsze badania

Zespół naukowców z MIT opracował również zmodyfikowaną wersję amputacji metodą AMI, którą można zastosować u pacjentów, którzy wcześniej przeszli już tradycyjną amputację. W takim przypadku operacja polega na przeszczepieniu do kikuta niewielkich fragmentów mięśni, które służą jako para agonista-antagonista.

Naukowcy pracują również nad opracowaniem procedury AMI dla innych typów amputacji (powyżej kolana oraz poniżej i powyżej łokcia).

Źródło: news-medical.net

Przeczytaj także: Eksperci z Belgii opracowali inteligentny opatrunek, który określi rodzaj rany w kilka sekund

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