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Nowa broń w walce z bakteriami opornymi na antybiotyki

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W USA powstało narzędzie, które może być nową bronią przeciwko bakteriom opornym na antybiotyki. Zespół badaczy z University of Texas w Austin opracował fluorescencyjne sondy chemiczne, które wykrywają enzym bakterii E.coli i pneumokoków. Enzym ten, jak wykazano, rozkłada wiele rodzajów antybiotyków i czyni bakterie opornymi na leczenie.

Naukowcy pod lupę wzięli enzym bakteryjny metalo-beta-laktamaza z New Delhi (NDM), który wytwarzają m.in. bakterie E.coli i pneumokoki. Enzym wpływa na rozwój antybiotykoodporności u bakterii. Badacze postanowili opracować cząsteczkę, która będzie emitowała światło w kontakcie z NDM. Takie rozwiązanie ostrzeże lekarzy o rodzaju drobnoustrojów, a także o tym, że bakteria oporna jest na antybiotyk. Pomoże również ustalić, jakich antybiotyków należy użyć, by leczyć infekcję, a także opracować nowe metody leczenia antybiotykooporności.

NDM odporny na najbezpieczniejsze i najskuteczniejsze antybiotyki

Enzym NDM został wykryty w 2008 r. Do tej pory udowodniono, że wpływa on na rozwój oporności u bakterii na antybiotyki. Rozkłada m.in. penicylinę, cefalosporynę i karbapenemy – najbezpieczniejsze i najskuteczniejsze antybiotyki w leczeniu infekcji bakteryjnej.

– W odpowiedzi na częsty kontakt z antybiotykami bakterie wykształciły różne mechanizmy, aby oprzeć się leczeniu. Jednym z nich jest wytwarzanie enzymów, które rozkładają antybiotyki, zanim będą one miały szansę zadziałać. Nasze narzędzie stworzone jest po to, aby dostarczyć ważnych informacji, dzięki którym będziemy zawsze o krok przed bakteriami – tłumaczy dr Emily Que, jedna z głównych autorek publikacji.

Więcej zastosowań fluorescencyjnej sondy

Fluorescencyjna sonda chemiczna, opracowana przez naukowców z USA, pomoże także w szybkim dobraniu antybiotyku, który będzie skuteczny w zwalczaniu opornych bakterii. Może znaleźć również zastosowanie w opracowaniu odpowiedniego inhibitora, który w połączeniu z antybiotykiem byłby w stanie zabijać bakterie wytwarzające NDM.

– Kiedy sonda zwiąże się z enzymem i zacznie świecić, wprowadzenie do probówki skutecznego inhibitora spowoduje oderwanie sondy, a wtedy świecenie ustanie. Pozwoli to na bardzo szybkie przetestowanie dużej ilości potencjalnych leków – podkreśla dr Emily Que.

W swoich badaniach naukowcy przyjrzeli się również zjawisku odporności odżywczej. W odpowiedzi na infekcję ludzki organizm zaczyna produkować białka, które wychwytują wszystkie jony metali dostępne w ciele, w tym m.in. cynk potrzebny do wytwarzania NDM. Naukowcy podkreślają, że sonda może również okazać się przydatna w badaniach odporności odżywczej – świecić tylko w obecności cynku, który potrzebny jest do wytworzenia enzymu.

Zastosowanie w leczeniu ran

Bakterie, które wykształciły oporność na antybiotyki, określa się mianem superbakterii. Narastanie antybiotykooporności jest problemem globalnym, spowodowanym przez nadużywanie antybiotyków. Im więcej się ich stosuje, tym skuteczność ich działania jest mniejsza.

Fluorescencyjna sonda mogłaby znaleźć zastosowanie w leczeniu ran, których gojenie się jest utrudnione z powodu zakażenia. Co roku na całym świecie dochodzi do ok. 700 tys. zgonów, których przyczyną są antybiotykooporne bakterie. Miejscem, gdzie do zakażeń odpornymi bakteriami dochodzi najczęściej, są szpitale. Wśród najgroźniejszych dla człowieka bakterii wymienia się m. in pałeczkę okrężnicy, pałeczkę zapalenia płuc, pałeczkę ropy błękitnej, dwoinkę zapalenia płuc czy paciorkowiec kałowy.

Źródło: The University of Texas

Przeczytaj także: Pionierski zabieg rekonstrukcji żeber u 14-latka w gdańskim szpitalu

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  40. mikschai.com
    Xu Jing이 조화를 이루는 것이 매우 중요합니다. 적어도 그는 편심한 Wang Shouren을 화나게하지 않을 것입니다.Xu Pengju는 이빨로 몸의 천 조각을 찢고 상처를 겹겹이 붕대로 감았습니다.

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