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Naukowcy znaleźli dziesiątki naturalnych peptydów o właściwościach przeciwdrobnoustrojowych w ludzkim organizmie

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Amerykańscy naukowcy z University of Pennsylvania za pomocą specjalnego algorytmu znaleźli w ludzkim organizmie niemal 35 peptydów o właściwościach przeciwdrobnoustrojowych. Eksperci odkryli, że związki te działają równie skutecznie jak istniejące antybiotyki i mogą przeciwdziałać rozwojowi oporności bakterii.

Naukowcy w poszukiwaniu  peptydów skorzystali ze specjalnego algorytmu, podobnego do tego, który wyszukuje określone słowa i frazy w dokumencie. Badacze znaleźli ponad 2,6 tys. związków, które nie miały połączenia z układem odpornościowym, co skłoniło ekspertów, by dokładnie zbadać ich działanie.

Peptydy nie powodowały widocznych oznak toksyczności

Badacze wybrali 55 peptydów i przetestowali ich skuteczność przeciw ośmiu bakteriom, m.in.: E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae (pałeczce zapaleniu płuc), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (pałeczce ropy błękitnej) i Staphylococcus aureus (gronkowcowi złocistemu). Infekcje tymi bakteriami są często nabywane w szpitalach, mogą być niebezpieczne i trudne do wyleczenia.

– Odkryliśmy, że 63,6 proc. z tych 55 zaszyfrowanych peptydów wykazywało aktywność przeciwdrobnoustrojową. – wskazuje César de la Fuente, główny autor badania. – Co ciekawe, te peptydy nie tylko zwalczały infekcje wywołane przez niektóre z najbardziej szkodliwych bakterii na świecie, ale także celowały w korzystne dla nas organizmy komensalne jelit i skóry. Spekulujemy, że może to wskazywać na rolę modulującą mikroflorę, jaką mogą mieć te peptydy – dodał ekspert.

Badacze wykazali, że peptydy działały przeciwdrobnoustrojowo jeszcze lepiej, gdy były zgrupowane z innymi z tego samego obszaru ciała. Ich moc została wówczas zwiększona nawet 100-krotnie. Ponadto, w badaniach na myszach, naukowcy odkryli, że peptydy działały równie dobrze, jak istniejące antybiotyki, a przy tym nie powodowały widocznych oznak toksyczności.

Powstaną naturalne antybiotyki?

Dalsze badania nad peptydami skupiły się na kwestii działania przeciw oporności bakterii. Wyniki okazały się równie obiecujące. Naukowcy odkryli, iż peptydy atakowały bakterie i przenikały przez ich błony zewnętrze, które umożliwiają drobnoustrojom przeżycie w organizmie. Zdaniem naukowców odkrycie to może nie tylko doprowadzić do powstania nowych i naturalnych antybiotyków, ale także przyczyni się do zwalczania rosnącego zagrożenia opornymi bakteriami. Ponadto metody zastosowane podczas badania mogą pomóc w odkryciu cząsteczek terapeutycznych w ludzkim organizmie przeciw innym chorobom i schorzeniom.

Bakterie oporne na antybiotyki są poważnym zagrożeniem dla zdrowia. Stale ewoluujące drobnoustroje wytwarzają coraz większą skuteczność przeciw istniejącym antybiotykom. Superbakterie mogą spowodować nawet 10 milionów zgonów rocznie w 2050 r. Antybiotykooporne drobnoustroje są również poważnym utrudnieniem w procesie leczenia ran i mogą prowadzić do poważnych powikłań.

Źródło: newatlas.com

 

Przeczytaj także: Zakażenie rany – jak je rozpoznać i jak mu zapobiegać? Wywiad z ekspertką

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