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Naukowcy opracowali nanocząsteczki hemostatyczne do tamowania krwotoków wewnętrznych

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Inżynierowie z Massachusets Institute of Technology (MIT) opracowali nanocząsteczki polimerowe do wstrzykiwania, które gromadzą się w miejscu urazu wewnętrznego i przyciągają komórki promujące krzepnięcie krwi w celu zatrzymania krwotoku. Zdaniem ekspertów rozwiązanie może ratować życie w nagłych sytuacjach, zanim pacjent dotrze do szpitala.

Nanocząsteczki hemostatyczne, które mogą zatrzymać wewnętrzny krwotok, można wytwarzać na wiele sposobów. Jedną z nich jest wykorzystanie biokompatybilnego polimeru sprężonego z białkiem lub peptydem, który przyciąga płytki krwi i komórki inicjujące krzepnięcie krwi.

Wielkość cząsteczki wpływa na możliwości tamowania krwotoku wewnętrznego

Uraz i krwotok wewnętrzny jest obarczony wysokim ryzykiem zgonu, dlatego wielu naukowców pracuje nad cząsteczkami hemostatycznymi, które mogłyby zatamować krwawienie. Niektóre z rozwiązań okazały się obiecujące w badaniach na zwierzętach, jednak nigdy nie przetestowano cząsteczek w badaniach klinicznych, na ludziach. Obawy dotyczą przede wszystkim bezpieczeństwa takiego rozwiązania. Zbyt duże cząsteczki mogą osadzać się w płucach i powodować niepożądane krzepnięcie, zbyt małe – mogą być nieskuteczne w tamowaniu krwotoku.

Naukowcy z MIT wykorzystali polimer znany jako PEG-PLGA sprzężony z peptydem o nazwie GRGDS. Wyzwaniem było stworzenie cząsteczek, które jednocześnie zatamują krwawienie, ale też nie odłożą się w płucach. Eksperci przeanalizowali cząsteczki o wielkości mniejszej niż 100 nanometrów do około 650 nanometrów. W analizach laboratoryjnych sprawdzono, w jaki sposób cząsteczki te wchodzą w interakcję z płytkami krwi w różnych warunkach, np. jak wiążą się z płytkami krwi przepływającymi przez rurkę.

Rozwiązanie ratujące życie na pierwszej linii leczenia urazu

Następnie naukowcy przeprowadzili badania na myszach, w których wykazano, że cząsteczki o średniej wielkości około 150 nanometrów były najskuteczniejsze w zatrzymywaniu krwawienia, a także nie przemieszczały się w dużej ilości do płuc czy innych miejsc poza urazem. Eksperci planują teraz przetestować swoje odkrycie na większych modelach zwierzęcych, by uzyskać informacje na temat ich skuteczności i ustalić bezpieczne dawki.

Zdaniem naukowców odkrycie to może służyć na pierwszej linii leczenia urazu wewnętrznego. Na przykład cząsteczki mogłyby zostać wykorzystane na miejscu wypadku i tamować krwawienie do momentu dotarcia pacjenta do szpitala. Naukowcy wyjaśniają, że rozwiązanie to nie jest lekarstwem na urazy wewnętrzne, a rozwiązaniem, które ratuje życie.

Krwotok wewnętrzny – przyczyny, objawy i pierwsza pomoc

Do urazów wewnętrznych dochodzi często w wypadkach komunikacyjnych, na skutek silnego uderzenia. Efektem są nie tylko stłuczenia i siniaki, ale także zmiażdżenie narządów wewnętrznych i krwotok wewnętrzny zagrażający życiu. Krwotok może również powstać w wyniku chorób ogólnoustrojowych, takich jak wrzody żołądka, dwunastnicy, hemofilia, gruźlica, nowotwór przełyku, płuc, żylaki, a także na skutek długotrwałego przyjmowania leków sterydowych, alkoholizmu czy zaburzeń krzepnięcia.

Krwotok wewnętrzny jest niezwykle niebezpiecznym zjawiskiem, ponieważ nie widać go gołym okiem, a rozpoznania należy dokonać na podstawie objawów klinicznych. Głównymi objawami są: osłabienie, przyspieszone, ale słabo wyczuwalne tętno, wzmożone pragnienie, uczucie wewnętrznego niepokoju, bladość powłok skórnych, nadmierne pocenie się, mroczki przed oczami, podwójne widzenie, omdlenie. Krwotok wewnętrzny może również manifestować się krwawieniem z nosa, uszu lub ust.

Pierwsza pomoc w przypadku krwotoku wewnętrznego polega na ułożeniu poszkodowanego w pozycji bocznej bezpiecznej lub z uniesionymi kończynami powyżej tułowia. Jak najszybciej należy wezwać karetkę, poszkodowanego okryć ciepłym kocem i starać się utrzymywać z nim kontakt słowny.

Źródło: MIT, fizjoterapeuty.pl

 

Przeczytaj także: Jak zatamować krwotok z rany?

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