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Naukowcy odkryli nieznaną dotąd funkcję płytek krwi w procesie gojenia ran

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Trombocyty, czyli płytki krwi, odpowiadają za wytworzenie skrzepu w miejscu urazu. Badania naukowców z RCSI University of Medicine and Health Sciences dowiodły, że płytki krwi mogą jednak odgrywać rolę nie tylko w procesie krzepnięcia krwi, ale również wytwarzania nowej tkanki w łożysku rany.  

Zespół naukowców z irlandzkiego ośrodka naukowego RCSI University of Medicine and Health Sciences we współpracy z badaczami z ETH Zurich, Julius-Maximilians-University Würzburg, University of Freiburg oraz University Hospital Zurich przeprowadził innowacyjne badania nad mechanizmem powstawania skrzepów po urazie oraz rolą trombocytów w procesie gojenia ran. Wyniki testów udostępniono na łamach czasopisma naukowego „Science Advances”.

Płytki krwi w procesie gojenia rany

W pierwszej fazie gojenia rany do łożyska przedostaje się krew, w której obecne są trombocyty. Ulegają one agregacji, co prowadzi do powstania czopa płytkowego i zahamowania dalszego krwawienia (tzw. hemostaza pierwotna). Następnie, w wyniku aktywacji osoczowych czynników krzepnięcia, dochodzi do wytworzenia włókien fibryny, które wplatają się w czop płytkowy i stopniowo tworzą sieć. W następstwie czop płytkowy przekształca się w skrzep (hemostaza wtórna).

W kolejnych fazach gojenia rany dochodzi do migracji i proliferacji fibroblastów, które odpowiadają za produkcję włókien kolagenowych oraz białek niezbędnych w procesie gojenia tkanek, takich jak m.in. fibronektyna.

Badania naukowców z RCSI dowodzą, że płytki krwi mogą odgrywać w procesie gojenia rany podobną rolę co fibroblasty. Wyniki badań wskazują, że trombocyty wytwarzają tymczasową macierz fibronektynową, co ma znaczenie dla zachowania integralności skrzepu podczas naprawy naczyń krwionośnych. Jak wskazuje dr Ingmar Schoen, który kierował badaniami, odkrycie to może mieć duże znaczenie dla lepszego zrozumienia mechanizmów gojenia:

– Wyniki naszych badań pokazują, że płytki krwi nie tylko tworzą skrzep, ale mogą również inicjować jego przebudowę poprzez wytworzenie włóknistej struktury. Badania nad gojeniem ran są obecnie skupione przede wszystkim na fibroblastach, dlatego to odkrycie może zakwestionować niektóre istniejące paradygmaty.

Komórki pod mikroskopem

Jak zaznaczają autorzy projektu, odkrycie to było możliwe dzięki wykorzystaniu mikroskopu o superrozdzielczości. Mechanizmy opisane w badaniach zostały jednak na razie zaobserwowane jedynie w warunkach in vitro. Dalsze badania będą wymagały sprawdzenia, czy te same mechanizmy zachodzą w żywych organizmach.

Źródło: news-medical.net


Przeczytaj także: Mechanizm zachodzący w roślinach pozwala na szybsze i skuteczniejsze gojenie ran

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