Najczęstsze powikłania po bronchoskopii
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Najczęstsze powikłania po bronchoskopii

Ten tekst przeczytasz w 2 min.

Pomimo tego, że bronchoskopia jest badaniem stosunkowo bezpiecznym, jak każde badanie inwazyjne może wiązać się z wystąpieniem powikłań. Wśród tych najczęstszych związanych z techniką i przebiegiem badania są krwawienie z dróg oddechowych związane najczęściej z pobraniem wycinków do badań, kaszel oraz podwyższona temperatura ciała o 1-2°C, która może utrzymywać się do 72 godzin po badaniu.

Ponadto po bronchoskopii mogą niekiedy wystąpić również urazy gardła i krtani związane z wprowadzeniem endoskopu, urazy błony śluzowej dróg oddechowych spowodowane pobraniem materiałów bioptycznych, skurcz oskrzeli, spadek prężności tlenu we krwi i związane z nim zaburzenia rytmu serca.

Powikłania po bronchoskopii mogą się również wiązać z działaniem leków podawanych przed badaniem lub w trakcie badania (leki znieczulające miejscowo). Wówczas u pacjentów najczęściej występują suchość w jamie ustnej, zaparcia oraz zatrzymanie moczu. Część pacjentów skarży się również na przyśpieszone i nierówne bicie serca, wzrost ciśnienia tętniczego, wzrost ciśnienia w gałce ocznej i zaburzenia widzenia, nadmierną senność, zawroty głowy, jak również zaburzenia koordynacji ruchowej.

Wśród potencjalnych skutków ubocznych tego badania są również powikłania związane ze znieczuleniem miejscowym. Należą do nich zaburzenia smaku, drętwienie języka i błon śluzowych i uczucie niepokoju. Niekiedy u pacjentów występuje również drżenie mięśniowe, zaburzenia rytmu serca, spadek ciśnienia tętniczego krwi oraz reakcje alergiczne, charakteryzujące się wysypką, pokrzywką, dusznością. Niezwykle rzadkim objawem tego badania są napady drgawek lub wstrząs.

Jak uniknąć powikłań po bronchoskopii?

Aby nie doszło do powikłań po tego rodzaju badaniu niezbędne jest stosowanie się do zaleceń personelu medycznego, przy czym ważne, aby poinformować o chorobach przebytych i współistniejących, o stosowanych aktualnie lekach i reakcjach nadwrażliwości na leki w przeszłości oraz pozostać na czczo (ostatni posiłek lub napój minimum 6 godzin przed badaniem).

Ponadto istotne jest również to, aby opanować gwałtowne ruchy w trakcie znieczulania górnych dróg oddechowych i wprowadzania endoskopu, odpocząć po badaniu (przez ok. 1-2 godziny), jak również powstrzymać się w tym czasie od spożywania posiłków i picia.

Jeżeli wystąpiły jakiekolwiek niepokojące objawy lub doszło do pogorszenia samopoczucia, pacjent powinien niezwłocznie poinformować o tym personel medyczny.

Źródło: mp.pl

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