Krwawienie powikłaniem po polipektomii endoskopowej
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Krwawienie powikłaniem po polipektomii endoskopowej

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Do powikłań po polipektomii endoskopowej, czyli wycięciu polipów dochodzi bardzo rzadko. Jednak jak każdy zabieg, niesie on za sobą ryzyko wystąpienia krwawienia z miejsca usunięcia polipa, a nawet przedziurawienia ściany przełyku. Niekiedy może również zajść konieczność leczenia operacyjnego.

Polipy tworzą się na powierzchni błony śluzowej. Pokryte są nabłonkiem gruczołowym. Z uwagi na to, że przez ich szypuły przebiegają naczynia krwionośne, mogą one wystąpić w obrębie wszystkich narządów, które są nimi wyścielane: w drogach oddechowych, przewodzie pokarmowym oraz układzie moczowym.

Polipektomia jest zabiegiem, który zapobiega rozwojowi raka

Złotym standardem usuwania wszelkich zmian polipowatych jest obecnie polipektomia endoskopowa. Zabieg ten polega na wprowadzeniu do miejsca występowania polipa endoskopu, czyli miękkiego wziernika. Urządzenie to wyposażone jest w kamerę, źródło światła oraz narzędzie wycinające. Ponadto podczas zabiegu stosuje się również kleszczyki i pętle diatermiczne, które zakładane są na polipa i w ten sposób odcina się go od powierzchni błony.

Małe i pojedyncze polipy to zazwyczaj zmiany łagodne. Jednak wskazaniem do endoskopowego ich wycięcia są polipy jelita grubego, polipy żołądka czy polipy nosa i zatok przynosowych.

Czy do polipektomii należy się odpowiednio przygotować?

Zabieg polipektomii wymaga przygotowania pod kątem oczyszczenia jelita z niestrawionych resztek pokarmowych, czyli takiego jakie jest niezbędne do przeprowadzenia endoskopii, gastroskopii czy kolonoskopii.

Przed polipektomią pacjent przyjmuje leki przeciwbólowe oraz znieczulające miejscowo. Niekiedy niezbędne jest wykonanie znieczulenia ogólnego.

Polipy jelita grubego mogą zostać usunięte podczas kolonoskopii, natomiast polipy żołądka podczas gastroskopii. Aby zapobiec krwawieniu po zabiegu usunięcia polipów nosa, zakładana jest tamponada przednia nosa. Po zabiegu polipektomii pacjent pozostaje przez kilka godzin w szpitalu, w celu obserwacji wystąpienia ewentualnych powikłań.


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