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Hydrożel z białka omułki rewolucjonizuje przeszczep owodni w okulistyce

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Zespół koreańskich naukowców opracował materiał bioadhezyjny z białka omułki, który może zrewolucjonizować metody przeszczepu owodni w okulistyce. Zabieg można wykonać bez użycia szwów, co pięciokrotnie przyspiesza operację i zapobiega powstawaniu blizn.

Naukowcy z Pohang University of Science and Technology oraz University College of Medicine opracowali materiał z białka omułki w postaci ciekłej, który pod wpływem światła w kilka sekund zmienia się w hydrożel. FixLight przeszedł właśnie badania przedkliniczne, zaplanowane zostały już badania na ludziach.

Błona owodniowa w rekonstrukcji spojówki

Naukowcy przetestowali swój wynalazek w badaniach przedklinicznych, które właśnie się zakończyły. Użyli bioadhezyjnego materiału w przeszczepie na modelu królika z ubytkami spojówki. Badacze zauważyli, że materiał dokładnie przylega do powierzchni oka, znacznie lepiej niż w operacjach z zastosowaniem szwów. Zabieg został wykonany ponad pięciokrotnie szybciej w porównaniu z tradycyjną metodą przeszczepu i nie pozostawił po sobie rozległych blizn. Po operacji materiał uległ całkowitej biodegradacji i zregenerował się w zintegrowaną tkankę nabłonkową.

Prof. Hyung Joon z Pohang University of Science and Technology podkreśla, że naukowcy potwierdzili skuteczność nowej metody przeszczepienia błony owodniowej w celu rekonstrukcji spojówki. Jak tłumaczy ekspert, oczekuje się, że nowy materiał będzie użytecznym i bezpiecznym środkiem zastępującym szwy w różnych dziedzinach medycyny.

Obiecujące perspektywy w operacjach okulistycznych

Naukowcy oczekują obecnie rozpoczęcia badań klinicznych FixLight. Dr Tae Yoon Park z University College of Medicine podkreśla, że przeszczep błony owodniowej jest istotną operacją dla rekonstrukcji uszkodzonej spojówki. Światłoutwardzalny materiał może umożliwić łatwą i szybką operację.

– Technika ta może znaleźć zastosowanie w innych operacjach okulistycznych, takich jak zamykanie nacięć po operacji zaćmy lub innych przeszczepach powierzchni oka, takich jak autoprzeszczep spojówki – dodaje dr Park.

Owodnia w medycynie

Owodnia jest najbardziej wewnętrzną stroną łożyska, otacza i chroni embrion. Jej właściwości regeneracyjne wykorzystuje się w leczeniu ran przewlekłych i oparzeniowych, a w okulistyce do regeneracji uszkodzonej spojówki. Materiał nie wywołuje reakcji alergicznej, chroni przed zakażeniem,  ma właściwości antybakteryjne i przeciwzapalne, zmniejsza bolesność rany i przyspiesza gojenie. Ponadto przeszczep z owodni nie jest zagrożony odrzuceniem. Po operacjach z zastosowaniem owodni zmniejsza się również ryzyko powstawania blizn.

W tradycyjnej metodzie przeszczepu owodni okuliści stosują szwy, by przytwierdzić błonę do oka. Operacja jest skomplikowana i czasochłonna. Po zabiegu na oku pacjenta powstaje również blizna.


Przeczytaj także: Operacje bariatryczne – wskazania, przebieg i rola w profilaktyce ran

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