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Badanie: komórki NK mają wpływ na proces gojenia ran

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Badania naukowców z University of Zurich dowodzą, że komórki układu odpornościowego mogą wpływać na proces gojenia ran – przyspieszać go lub opóźniać. Stymulacja gojenia może się jednak wiązać ze zwiększoną podatnością na infekcje.

Międzynarodowy zespół naukowców pod kierunkiem prof. Christiana Stockmanna z University of Zurich Institute of Anatomy odkrył nieznaną dotychczas funkcję jednego z typów komórek odpornościowych. Badania wskazują, że poprzez pośrednią bądź bezpośrednią stymulację odpowiedzi immunologicznej możliwe jest pobudzenie i przyspieszenie wzrostu nowych naczyń krwionośnych. Konsekwencją może być jednak zwiększone ryzyko wystąpienia infekcji bakteryjnej.

Wyniki badań naukowców ze szwajcarskiego ośrodka zostały opublikowane w czasopiśmie naukowym „Nature Communications”.

Leczenie ran z niedotlenieniem komórkami odpornościowymi

Komórki NK (ang. natural killer cells) to komórki odpornościowe o właściwościach naturalnej cytotoksyczności. Komórki te poprzez wydzielanie cytokin komunikują się w sposób ciągły z innymi typami komórek układu odpornościowego i wpływają na ich aktywność.

Naukowcy z University of Zurich odkryli, że komórki NK mogą przenikać do uszkodzonych tkanek, w których występuje bardzo niski poziom tlenu. W takim przypadku komórki NK modyfikują ekspresję genów, by zaadaptować się do niedotlenionego środowiska. Adaptacja ta jest możliwa dzięki czynnikom transkrypcyjnym indukowanym niedotlenieniem (ang. hypoxia-inducible transcription factors, HIF).

Badania naukowców ze szwajcarskiego ośrodka wykazały, że brak jednego z wymienionych czynników (HIF-1α) powoduje zaburzenia w uwalnianiu cytokin. Powoduje to stymulację angiogenezy, co przyspiesza proces gojenia. Jednocześnie jednak odporność tkanek na zakażenie bakteryjne zostaje zmniejszona.

Proces ten może również zostać odwrócony – dowodzą naukowcy z University of Zurich. Wymuszona aktywacja czynników HIF wywołuje uwolnienie cytokin i stymuluje odpowiedź immunologiczną sterowaną przez komórki NK. Skutkiem tego procesu jest jednak opóźnienie gojenia rany.

Na podstawie wyników badań naukowcy wnioskują, że czynnik HIF-1α jest ogniwem, które równoważy obronę organizmu przed drobnoustrojami z procesami naprawczymi tkanek.

Konieczne dalsze badania

W kolejnych etapach projektu naukowcy zamierzają zbadać, czy komórki NK mogą wpływać nie tylko na szybkość, ale również na jakość gojenia się ran, np. na skład tkanki łącznej lub regenerację mieszków włosowych, gruczołów i innych elementów skóry. Jak zauważa prof. Christian Stockmann, szef projektu:

– Najbardziej interesujące pytanie brzmi, jak możemy przyspieszyć gojenie się ran, jednocześnie wzmacniając odpowiedź immunologiczną przed infekcjami.

Źródło: nature.com, eurekalert.org

146 thoughts on “Badanie: komórki NK mają wpływ na proces gojenia ran

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