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Badanie: immunoterapia w onkologii a zmiany skórne

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Naukowcy z Massachusetts General Hospital przeprowadzili badanie nad zmianami skórnymi powstającymi w wyniku stosowania inhibitorów punktów kontrolnych w leczeniu zaawansowanych nowotworów. Wyniki szeroko zakrojonej analizy opublikowano w czasopiśmie „Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology”.

Jak tłumaczy jeden z głównych autorów badania, dr Yevgeniy R. Semenov z Massachusetts General Hospital Depertment of Dermatology, immunoterapia, w tym stosowanie inhibitorów punktów kontrolnych, to coraz bardziej rozpowszechniona metoda leczenia zaawansowanych nowotworów. Wraz ze zwiększeniem stosowania immunoterapii rośnie również częstotliwość występowania efektów ubocznych, w tym zmian skórnych.

Zespół pod kierunkiem dr. Semenova wykorzystał algorytmy big data do zbadania, jak często i kiedy występują powikłania skórne po stosowaniu inhibitorów punktów kontrolnych oraz w jaki sposób się je leczy. W analizie porównano dane medyczne 8 637 pacjentów onkologicznych, których poddano immunoterapii, oraz dane takiej samej liczby pacjentów, u których nie stosowano tego rodzaju środków. Wyniki badania wykazały, że odsetek występowania zmian skórnych wyniósł 25,1%. Zmiany utrzymywały się średnio przez 113 dni.

Rodzaje zmian skórnych

Jak mówi dr Semenov, wyniki badań wskazują, że tylko 10 z ponad 40 zgłaszanych przez pacjentów dolegliwości skórnych występuje częściej u pacjentów stosujących inhibitory punktów kontrolnych niż u chorych leczonych innymi metodami.

Wśród zgłaszanych objawów pojawiło się swędzenie, stany zapalne, występowanie wysypek i obrzęków, pęcherze oraz zaburzenia barwy skóry. Jak wykazały badania, na rozwój tego rodzaju symptomów szczególnie narażeni są pacjenci otrzymujący jednocześnie różne rodzaje inhibitorów punktów kontrolnych. Ryzyko powikłań skórnych jest większe również w przypadku pacjentów cierpiących na raka nerki oraz czerniaka.

Metody leczenia powikłań skórnych

Wyniki analizy wykazały ponadto, że zmiany skórne po immunoterapii ujawniają się później, niż wskazują na to badania kliniczne. Ponadto autorzy badania odkryli, że w ramach leczenia pacjentom często przepisywano kortykosteroidy, które nie powinny być stosowane podczas immunoterapii, ponieważ mogą osłabiać jej działanie przeciwnowotworowe.

Jak mówi dr Yevgeniy Semenov:

Te odkrycia mają duże znaczenie zarówno dla onkologów, jak i dla dermatologów zajmujących się pacjentami leczonymi za pomocą inhibitorów punktów kontrolnych.

Ekspert podkreśla, że dzięki wynikom badania wiadomo, że nie należy odrzucać powiązania zmian skórnych z immunoterapią ze względu na ich późne wystąpienie. Wyniki analizy powinny również doprowadzić do poprawy standardu opieki nad pacjentami.

Źródło: eurekalert.org

Przeczytaj także: Badania przesiewowe całego ciała kluczowym czynnikiem we wczesnej diagnostyce czerniaka u osób z grup wysokiego ryzyka

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