Badania pokazały, że tkanka tłuszczowa śródskórna u seniorów pozytywnie wpływa na proces gojenia ran
Badania naukowe Leczenie ran Newsy

Badania pokazały, że tkanka tłuszczowa śródskórna u seniorów pozytywnie wpływa na proces gojenia ran

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Z badań przeprowadzonych przez badaczki z Instytutu Rozrodu Zwierząt i Badań Żywności PAN w Olsztynie wynika, że proces gojenia ran na skórze u seniorów zachodzi wolniej, ale z wytworzeniem zdecydowanie mniejszej, delikatniejszej blizny. Wpływ na proces ten ma wiek pacjenta, kondycja skóry, a także obecność śródskórnej warstwy tłuszczowej.

– W świecie ssaków, w tym człowieka, bezbliznowe (regeneracyjne) gojenie urazów skóry odbywa się wyłącznie w życiu płodowym – podkreśliła kierująca zespołem badawczym prof. Barbara Gawrońska-Kozak.

Rola blizny w procesie gojenia ran

Dodała, iż w wieku dorosłym urazy skóry goją się z wytworzeniem blizny, która jest dobrodziejstwem, ponieważ dzięki niej możliwe jest szybkie odtworzenie ciągłości zranionej skóry i przywrócenie jej funkcji ochronnej. Ponadto, zdarzają się również blizny przerostowe, które mogą ograniczać ruchomość, szpecić oraz utrudniać życie.

– Ciekawe jest to, że w podeszłym wieku gojenie urazów skórnych zachodzi wolniej, ale z wytworzeniem zdecydowanie mniejszej, delikatniejszej blizny. Moje wcześniejsze badania prowadzone w USA na myszach wykazały natomiast, że istnieją osobniki, które w życiu dorosłym goją urazy skóry bezbliznowo. Myszy te różnią się od innych szczepów brakiem genu Foxn1, który u myszy i ludzi występuje tylko w dwóch obszarach: w grasicy i w skórze – zwraca uwagę prof. Gawrońska-Kozak.

Znaczenie obecności genu Foxn1 w tworzeniu się blizny w skórze

Autorki badania przeprowadzonego na myszach z obniżoną ekspresją genu Foxn1 (oznaczało to, że w ich organizmach powstawało mniej białka, kodowanego przez ten właśnie gen) potwierdziły tezę, iż gen Foxn1 ma duże znaczenie dla wytworzenia pourazowej blizny w skórze. Dodatkowo Zespół szukał potwierdzenia, czy ekspresja Foxn1 zmienia się wraz z wiekiem albo dietą oraz jak to wygląda u płodów, dorosłych czy osób w podeszłym wieku.

Eksperci porównali wyniki badań z wynikami uzyskanymi w kontrolnej grupie zwierząt, w której wzięły udział myszy młode (4-5 miesięczne) oraz stare (2-letnie), co przekłada się na wiek ludzki ok. 30 lat i ponad 70 lat. Gryzonie były żywione dietą standardową lub wysokotłuszczową.

Badania pokazały, że tkanka tłuszczowa śródskórna u seniorów pozytywnie wpływa na proces gojenia ran

Badania trwały 4 lata

Podczas analizy procesu gojenia urazów skóry u myszy, autorki brały pod uwagę wiek, dietę oraz płeć oraz to, jak wpływają one na stan/homeostazę skóry niezranionej oraz proces gojenia. Ponadto, analiza skupiała się również na tym, jak związek z wiekiem zmiany ekspresji Foxn1 wpływa na proces gojenia. „Prace przyniosły tak dużo wyników, że rozszerzyły się na dwie drogi badawcze” – podkreśla prof. Gawrońska-Kozak.

– Badania ostatnich lat wykazały bowiem, że skóra – oprócz dobrze nam znanej tkanki tłuszczowej podskórnej – posiada również tkankę tłuszczową śródskórną, o której wciąż wiadomo niewiele. Badania wskazują jednak, że bierze ona udział w termoregulacji, w odpowiedzi immunologicznej skóry – i w gojeniu ran – wyjaśniła ekspertka.

Największy wpływ na kondycję skóry ma wiek

Jak wykazał Zespół prof. Gawrońskiej-Kozak, połączenie takich parametrów, jak wiek, płeć oraz dieta może zmieniać stan skóry i sam proces gojenia urazów skórnych. Wyniki badań pokazały, że wraz z wiekiem skóra staje się coraz cieńsza, jednak skóra myszy starych, żywionych dietą wysokotłuszczową, która powoduje przyrost masy ciała – ma tę samą grubość, co myszy młodych. Utrata grubości u tej grupy myszy zastąpiona była rozrostem śródskórnej warstwy tłuszczowej.

– Co ciekawe, wykazałyśmy bardzo duże różnice w potencjale do produkcji kolagenu (głównego białka strukturalnego skóry) pomiędzy samicami a samcami. Podczas gdy samce wykazują duży potencjał do produkcji kolagenu w wieku młodym, w wieku podeszłym następuje jego drastyczny spadek. U samic młodych i starych potencjał do produkcji kolagenu okazuje się bardzo podobny. Wydaje się, że w ich przypadku wiek nie ma tak dużego znaczenia, jak u samców – tłumaczy profesor.

Najszybsza odbudowa naskórka przebiega najszybciej u myszy młodych i szczupłych

Proces gojenia ran jest spowolniony u młodych, ale otyłych myszy, a także u starych, bez względu na masę ciała. Zaskoczeniem było to, że rozmiar i grubość blizny były znacznie mniejsze u myszy starych.

– Nasze badania nad mechanizmem regulowania tkanki śródskórnej wskazują, że w te regulacje włączony jest właśnie gen Foxn1, który może wpływać na stan skóry i proces gojenia urazów – podkreśliła prof. Gawrońska-Kozak.

Ekspresja genu Foxn1 jest najwyższa wśród osobników dorosłych

Kierująca zespołem badawczym dodała, że ekspresja genu Foxn1 jest najwyższa wśród osobników dorosłych. Dzięki temu dochodzi u nich do gojenia bliznowego. Najniższa ekspresja tego genu natomiast występuje u osobników starych, u których zredukowane zostaje wytworzenie blizny pourazowej. Gojenie bezbliznowe występuje u płodów.

– Podsumowując można powiedzieć, że stan skóry i proces gojenia jest najsprawniejszy u myszy młodych” – powiedziała profesor. U myszy starych rozsądny przyrost masy ciała – w powiązaniu ze wzrostem śródskórnej tkanki tłuszczowej – dobrze wpływa na wygląd i funkcje skóry. Szczególnie jest to widoczne u samic. Stan skóry, zmienność w trakcie procesu starzenia, regulacja obecności śródskórnej warstwy tłuszczowej, a także sposób gojenia – są miedzy innymi regulowane poprzez gen Foxn1 – dodała.

W skład Zespołu prof. Barbary Gawrońskiej-Kozak weszli Marta Kopcewicz, Katarzyna Walendzik, dr Joanna Bukowska, dr Anna Kur-Piotrowska i Sylwia Machcińska. Wyniki ich badań zostały opublikowane w czasopismach naukowych „Journal of Investigative Dermatology” oraz „Aging US”.

Źródło: naukawpolsce.pap.pl

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