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Autonomiczny robot chirurgiczny wykonuje precyzyjne operacje zespolenia jelit

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Zespół naukowców z Uniwersytetu Johnsa Hopkinsa w USA pracuje nad autonomicznym robotem chirurgicznym, który przy minimalnej pomocy chirurga wykonuje operacje zespolenia jelit. Wyniki badań pokazały, że wynalazek jest bardziej precyzyjny i dokładny podczas zabiegów niż doświadczeni chirurdzy.

Chirurgia wspomagana przez roboty coraz bardziej się rozwija. Opracowano już wiele systemów, które wspierają chirurgów podczas operacji. Jednym z przykładów jest robot chirurgiczny da Vinci – narzędzie, które umożliwia przeprowadzenie skomplikowanych zabiegów z dziedziny urologii, ginekologii czy chirurgii bariatrycznej w małoinwazyjny sposób (zobacz także: Bezpłatne leczenie nowotworów prostaty z wykorzystaniem mało inwazyjnej technologii). System ten nie jest jednak w pełni autonomiczny i wymaga zaangażowania człowieka. Naukowcy z Uniwersytetu Johnsa Hopkinsa postanowili opracować robota, który niemal samodzielnie wykona operacje chirurgiczne. Badania nad wynalazkiem zostały opisane w czasopiśmie naukowym „Science Robotics”.

Robot nie zastąpi chirurgów – ma zwiększyć precyzję wykonywanych zabiegów

Robot o nazwie STAR (Smart Tissue Autonomous Robot) został opracowany przez zespół prowadzony przez dr. Axela Kriegera i służy do wykonywania zespoleń jelitowych, podczas których dwa kawałki jelita cienkiego są zszywane w jeden, ciągły odcinek. Operacje z wykorzystaniem robota wykonywane są z minimalnym zaangażowaniem człowieka – chirurg ręcznie odsłania brzegi tkanek, po czym STAR wykonuje zdjęcia i opracowuje plan umieszczenia szwów w oparciu o kształt i grubość tkanki. Gdy operator zatwierdzi plan – STAR samodzielnie zszywa tkankę. Jeżeli podczas operacji tkanka odkształci się lub przesunie poza ustalony próg, robot pyta chirurga czy powinien opracować nowy plan chirurgiczny.

– Dzięki zastosowaniu nowatorskich narzędzi do szycia chirurgicznego, systemów obrazowania, algorytmów uczenia maszynowego i sterowania robotami, system STAR jest przygotowany do przezwyciężenia wyzwań związanych z autonomiczną chirurgią – podkreślił dr Krieger. – STAR może wizualizować pole chirurgiczne, generować plan operacji, a następnie wykonać ją z dużą dokładnością i precyzją – dodał ekspert.

Autor badań zaznaczył jednak, że robot nie zastąpi całkowicie chirurgów. Wyjaśnił, że STAR jest projektowany z myślą o włączeniu go w proces chirurgiczny, a jego zadaniem jest zwiększenie precyzji wykonywanych zabiegów.

STAR był bardziej precyzyjny od chirurgów

Naukowcy postanowili porównać skuteczność i precyzję robota na fantomowych tkankach jelit, które podczas zabiegu zachowywały się jak prawdziwe. STAR przeprowadził zabieg pięć razy, a wyniki operacji porównano z wynikami zabiegów przeprowadzonych przez chirurgów. W porównaniu z operacjami wykonanymi przez chirurgów, STAR był bardziej precyzyjny pod względem rozstawu i głębokości szwów. Ponadto przepływ płynów przez jelito był bardziej laminarny w tkankach operowanych przez STAR, co wskazuje na lepszą jakość zespolenia niż te wykonane przez doświadczonych chirurgów.

STAR został również przetestowany na dużym modelu zwierzęcym. Zespolenie jelitowe wykonano u pięciu świń – cztery procedury przeprowadzono z użyciem robota, a piątą z pomocą tradycyjnej laparoskopii. Podobnie, jak w przypadku eksperymentów z fantomami, STAR nie popełniał błędów. Ponadto precyzja zabiegu pozwoliła na szybsze gojenie się operowanego miejsca – w przeciągu 7 dni od operacji.

Dr Krieger podkreślił, że wyniki pokazują, iż STAR jest bardziej precyzyjny i dokładny niż doświadczeni chirurdzy. Ekspert wyraził nadzieję, że w przyszłości systemy robotyczne wpłyną na poprawę leczenia pacjentów.

Źródło: news-medical.net

 

Przeczytaj także: Coraz więcej operacji w Polsce przeprowadzanych jest z użyciem robota

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